enviado 02-07-2005 18:33
Publicamos o trabalho abaixo no Congresso Mundial de Bufalos nas Filipinas,
Fizemos um outro que foi publicado, no Congresso Mundial de Buiatria na
Alemanha em 2002 (logo abaixo do primeiro).
Estamos trabalhando este ano com rBST a partir do dia do parto, aplicado a
cada 14 dias em um grupo e outro grupo sem rBST, para confirmamos os
resultados obtidos no trabalho passado (publicado Filipinas). Atualmente
nossa média de rebanho é maior e poderemos considerar a viabilidade
economica do uso do rBST.
PERFORMANCE OF BUFFALO COWS (Bubalus bubalis) SUBMITED TO A SOMATOTROPIN
SNEL-OLIVEIRA, M.V.; MOLICA, E.M.; WETZEL-GASTAL, D.; OLIVEIRA, S. M DE;
VIANA, A. M., GUERRA-FILHO, A. F.; MIRANDA, A. A.; MAIA, V.
UPIS - Faculdades Integradas, Fazenda Lagoa Bonita, Campus II, BR 020, km
12/DF 335, km 4,8, Brasília - DF, BRASIL. CEP 73350980 Telephone
55-61-30346911, FAX 55-61-30346907, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: The somatotropin, pituitary hormone, was discovered in the
Thirties when it was found that injecting pituitary extract in rats, it
increased the growth of these animals. The discovery that somatotropin is
present in milk and that high circulating levels in the serum are associated
with high milk producing cows, led to inquiries on the effects of exogen
somatotropin application. According to Suárez et al. (1996) the milk
production increases when bovine recombinant somatotropin (rBST) is
injected, without increasing feed ingestion. The use of a hormone produced
genetically in the milk brought some concerns on its effects on the health
and well-being of the cattle, and the possibility of harmful residues for
humans, in milk. The use of rBST was authorized in the U.S.A in 1994. The
use of rBST to increase milk production has been widely used in dairy cows,
with different results, especially on the economic point of view. For some
researchers the production increase has not compensated the cost of the
medicine and for others, the animals have had more difficulty to become
pregnant. This fact can be related to the negative energy balance, due to
the increase of milk production, without the increase the offering of
feeding. The low bubaline milk production, due especially, to the short time
of selection, is compensated by a higher income in the industry and its
consequent higher economic value as well as for its derivates. Few studies
have tested rBST in buffaloes and the results are still not conclusive.
Jorge and Gomes (2001) and Ludri (1989) have gotten an increase of up to 40%
in the bubaline milk production, while Snel-Oliveira et al (2002) had not
gotten significant increase in milk production. These different results can
be related to the variation in the dosages and to the period of the
beginning of application between these studies. The average milk production
in not selected bubaline flocks, on field pasture, is of 4 liters/day, in
only one milking (Furtado, 1980). The buffalo milk presents characteristics
that allow its easy identification on the physical-chemical and organoleptic
point of view. Its peculiar flavor, is lightly sweet and its color is white,
due to almost total carotene absence (Furtado, 1980). Different factors as
climatic conditions, feeding, race, handling and phase of lactation affect
the milk composition. For this, strategies that promote the increase of the
milk production, without modifying its quality and chemical composition are
very important. Objectives: The objective of the present work is to evaluate
the effect rBST in the characteristics of milk and the productive and
reproductive performance of buffaloes of Murrah breed. Material and Methods:
The experiment was lead at UPIS, Campus II, Lagoa Bonita Farm, Brasilia -
DF, Brazil, in the period April 2002 to February 2003. Thirty-four bubaline
cows have been randomly distributed in delineation with factorial
arrangement 2x2 (with and without application of rBST and two different
application beginning periods). rBST was applied subcutaneouly in a dose of
500mg (Lactotropinâ - Elanco-Saúde Animal - Biochemie GmbH - Austria), every
14 days, up to 14 days before stopping milking. The treatments have been
made in the following way: D 01 - 1st application on calving day
(parturition between April 10 to July 19); D 602 - 1st application 60 days
after calving (parturition between March 9 to April 9); D 03 - calving
between April 10 to July 19; D 604 - calving between March 9 to April 9. The
animals have been kept in grass regimen with supplementation of concentrate,
in accordance with the buffaloes milk production. In the drought season the
animals have also been supplemented with maize ensilage. The buffaloes have
been mechanically milked once a day, after calves suckling to provoke milk
ejection. Milk was measured (milking machine De Laval Marc 5) for
productivity weekly since 1st week after calving and there was taken weekly
samples for physical-chemical analyses since the 1st rBST application until
the end of the lactation. The milk samples have been collected for physical
and chemical analysis soon after calves have suckled to provoke the milk
ejection. The interval calving/conception has not been evaluated because of
the period of matting that goes from June 1st to September 30 . The
reproductive performance data that have been evaluated were pregnancy
(inseminated cows/pregnant cows) and the number of semen doses/pregnancy
(total number of doses utilizated/ pregnant cows). The data have been
analyzed using STATISTICA software, version 5.0. Results: Those animals that
presented a period of very higher lactation than the average of the species
have been considered as discrepant data and removed from the analysis. In
treatment D03 lactation days were lesser (p<0,05) than in the other
treatments that presented the same averages. Besides the difference observed
in the total production (kg/an/lact.) and the average production (kg/an/day)
a bigger efficiency is verified when rBST was used since the 1st the day of
calving (Table 1). This result was also found by Jorge and Gomes (2001),
they observed a higher milk production when they applied rBST beginning from
the calving day. Snel-Oliveira et al. (2002) had also not observed
significant differences in the total milk production between the treatment
without rBST and with the application 60 days after calving. There was no
significant difference between the treatment regarding conception indexes
neither for the number of doses per pregnancy.
Table 1: Average and standard deviation of the quantitative parameters of
the milk production of buffaloes in accordance with the treatment.
Average Production (kg/an/day)
Total Production (kg/an/lact)
Conception Rate (%)
Total frequency = 88,46
Semen doses per pregnancy
Total average = 1,35 (0,69)
Averages followed by same letter in the lines do not differ between
themselves in Duncan's test (p>0,05).
The fat and dry matter levels differ from the normally joined standards for
buffaloes, therefore the analyses have been carried out with the initial
milking milk and not with the total milk of the day. There have not been
observed significant differences (p>0,05) in acidity, fat and protein
content for rBST application, what is in accordance with the results found
by several authors (Ludri, R.S., 1989; Polidóri, F. et al, 1997; Baldi,
1999; Jorge and Gomes, 2001). The density rate (g/mL) was lower in the
treatment with rBST from the 60th day on, this results, indeed were the same
as the one for D01 and D03. This two treatments presented a hight standart
deviation that made it similar to treatment D604. This may be explained by
the fact that the animals of theses two groups have been evaluated since the
beginning of the lactation (Table 2). This results noticed on the dry matter
index indicate that there is a large variability between the treatments,
turning it impossible to verify if there was or not any effect of rBST.
Table 2: Average and standard deviation of the qualitative parameters of
the milk production of buffaloes according to the treatment.
Density 15°C (g/mL)
Dry matter (%)
Averages followed by same letter in the lines do not differ between
themselves in Duncan's Test (p>0,05).
Conclusion: Total milk production of the animals that have received rBST on
the calving day was higher than the one of the animals that have received
rBST 60 days after calving and from those that had not received rBST. At
theses milk production levels rBST does not affect the pregnancy rates,
neither the number of semen doses per pregnant cow. Acidity, fat and protein
of milk remained unaltered with the application of rBST but density of milk
was affected by the application of rBST.
BALDI, A. Manipulation of milk production and quality by use of
somatotropin in dairy ruminants other than cow. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
FURTADO, M.M. Leite de búfala: características e fabricação de queijos. Dep.
De Tecnologia de Alimentos, Instituto de Laticínios "Cândido Tostes",
EPAMIG, 59p, 1980.
JORGE, A.M. e GOMES, M.I.F.V. Effect of bovine somatotropin (bst)
utilization on milk yield from murrah dairy buffaloes. In: Herta-Leidenz,
N.; Vergara-Lopes, J & Rodas-Gonzales, A. (eds), VI World Buffalo Congress,
The Buffalo: an alternative for animal agriculture in the third millenium.
(Maracaibo, Venezuela) 2001; v.2:149-154.)
LUDRI, R.S.; UPADHYAY, R.C.; SINGH, M.; GUNERATNE, J.R.; BASSON, R.P. Milk
production in lactating buffalo receiving recombinant produced bovine
somatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 72(9):2283-7, 1989.
POLIDÓRI, F.; SGOIFO-ROSSI, C.A.; SENATORE, E.M.; SAVONNI, G.; DELL'ORTO, V.
Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropine and calcium salts of long-chain
fatty acids from Italian buffalo. J. Dairy Sci; 80(9):2137-42,1997.
SNEL-OLIVEIRA, M.V., VALE, W.G., GASTAL, D.W. The use of recombinant bovine
somatotropin (rBST) in murrah female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). IN: XXIII
World Buiatrics Congress, 2002, Hannover. Anais. Hannover:World Buiatric
Society, 649. 2002.
SUÁREZ, A.; VALADARES, S.; SILVA, J.F.C. DA; PEREIRA, J.C.; CECON, P.R.
Efeito da Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante na Produção de Leite e Consumo
de Matéria Seca em Vacas Leiteiras. In: XXXV Reunião SBZ. Fortaleza. 1996.
Anais... Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. p 150-151.
XXIII World Buiatrics Congress, 2002, Hannover. Anais. Hannover:World
Buiatric Society, 649. 2002.
THE USE OF RECOMBINANT BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN (rBST) IN MURRAH FEMALE
BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis)
Snel-Oliveira, M.V.(1), Vale, W.G. , Gastal, D.W.(1)
(1) UPIS - Faculdades Integradas - Brasilia-DF - BRAZIL
The use of bovine recombinant somatotropin (rBST) to improve milk
production has been widely used in dairy cows with controversial results.
But, up to now, few studies have tested rBST in buffalos. The objective of
this study was to evaluate the use of rBST in the productive and
reproductive performance of Murrah breed buffaloes at first or second
lactation. Twenty animals have been selected and distributed randomly into
two groups: G1 - control, without application of rBST; G2 # At 60 ± 7 days
after calving the animals received rBST (Lactotropin®, 500 mg, sc)
applications. Each animal received a total of 8 applications, one every 14
days, except between the 4th and the 5th application, when the interval was
of 28 days. There was no significant difference (p>0,05) between the two
groups during the lactation period (G1 = 295.40 ± 38.45 days; G2= 273.00 ±
44.27 days), in total milk production (G1 = 1193.36 ± 206.76 kg/lactation;
G2 = 1130.51 ± 230.23 kg/lactation) and in daily milk production (G1 = 4.07
± 0.79 kg/day; G2 = 4.21 ± 0.98 kg/day). When milk production was adjusted
to 270 days, there was also no difference (p>0,05) between the groups for
total milk production (G1 = 1090.04 ± 181.11 kg/lactation; G2 = 1102.41 ±
235.23 kg/lactation) and for daily milk production (G1 = 3.77 ± 0.97 kg/day;
G2 = 4.16 ± 1.18 kg/day), for p>0,05. Concerning the evaluation of the
reproductive parameters, the two groups showed 80% of pregnancy rate and an
average of 1.5 doses of semen per pregnant animal. None of the groups
presented clinical mastitis. In regard to the calving/conception interval,
there were also no differences found between the control group and the group
receiving rBST (p>0,05), with 96,25 ± 51,84 days and 86,62 ± 30,57 days,
respectively. Although the present study has not presented significant
differences, another study (Mendes, .J. A. & Gomes, M. I. F. V. In: VI World
Buffalo Congress, Maracaibo, 2001; v.2:149-154.) used rBST just before
calving with significant increasing results in milk production. Thus, due to
the controversial results found in both studies it is important to provide
new studies with different periods and application timing as well as
different rBST doses. In the present study, the application of rBST 60 ± 7
days after calving has not improved milk production but it has also not
affect gestation rates neither mastitis rates.